Glosario en inglés

 
Abrasion
Wearing, grinding, or rubbing away of material by friction. In a filtration system abrasion is usually caused by the presence of foreign matter such as dirt, grit, or metallic particles present in the fluid stream from worn down system components due to close tolerances, vibration, or shock.
Abrasives
Particles that when caught between moving surfaces, will “abrade” or wear down a surface
Absolute efficiency rating
The diameter of the largest hard spherical particle that will pass through a filter under specified test conditions. This is an indication of the largest opening in the filter element.
Absolute pressure
Pressure above an absolute vacuum. One atmosphere (14.70 psi) greater than gauge pressure. Symbolized as psia when the pressure is expressed in psi units.
Absorption
Physio‐chemical process in which a substance associates with another to form a homogeneous mixture presenting the characteristics of a solution
Absorption
The taking in, incorporation or reception of gases, liquids, light or heat. (phys/chem.) Penetration of one substance into the inner structure of another (cf. adsorption, in which one substance is attracted and held on the surface of another). Occurs between a gas or vapor and a liquid. (pharm.) The process of movement of a drug from the site of application into the extracellular compartment of the body.
Actinides
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
Activated alumina
Highly porous and granular form of aluminum oxide having preferential adsorptive capacity for moisture from gases, vapors, and some liquids. May be regenerated for extended use under specified conditions.
Activated carbon
Charcoal activated by heating to 800-900ºC to form a material of high adsorptive capacity for many gases, vapors, organics, etc. Has a large internal surface area (approx 1,000 m2/g). Commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry to remove organic contaminants. Can be used either as an additive in granular form which is then filtered out or as a filter media in a filtration device itself.
Activated carbon / Activated charcoal
Any form of carbon characterized by high adsorptive capacity for gases, vapors, or colloidal solids. The carbon or charcoal is produced by destructive distillation of wood, peat, lignite, nut shells, bones, vegetable or other carbonaceous matter, but must be activated by high temperature steam or carbon dioxide which creates a porous particle structure.
Actual Cubic Feet per Minute (ACFM)
Unit of measure of air flow rate measured at operating temperature and pressure
Adsorption
Retention of gas, liquid or solid on a surface due to positive interaction (attraction) between the surface and the molecules of the adsorbed material
Aerobic bacteria
Organisms which require oxygen to live
Aerosol
Dispersion of small liquid particles in a gas
Alkali metal
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
Alkaline earth metals
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
Almandine
Type of mineral typically used in the mining industry
Aluminium
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
Ambient
Refers to "common" environmental conditions in which experiment is conducted. For example: 14.7 psia and 20º to 25ºC (room temperature)
Amethyst
Type of precious stone typically used in the mining industry
Amine
Class of organic compounds of nitrogen that may be considered as derived from ammonia. May be a gas, liquid or solid. All amines are basic in nature and will usually combine readily with hydrochloric or other strong acids to form salts.
Anaerobic
Organism capable of growing without the presence of oxygen
Anisotropic (asymmetric) membrane
Filtration media in which the pore size and structure are not the same from one side of the membrane to the other. Such membranes are usually considered "directional" because of the difference in flow characteristics depending on which side of the membrane faces the feed stream.
Anode
Positive pore or electrode of an electrolytic system
Anti-drainback valve
The valve often provided in the inlet of a filter to prevent oil draining back through the oil pump.
API gravity
[In refining crude oil...] Arbitrary measure established by the American Petroleum Institute to specify the weight of crude oil per unit volume. It relates specific gravity as follows: ̊API = (141.5/specific gravity) – 131.5 (e.g. 10 ̊API oil has a specific gravity of 1.0, the same as water.) (Note: API gravity is not viscosity. Heavy (low API number) crude break by themselves. To separate, emulsions must be heated; oils tend to be high viscosity; however, viscosity must be known chemical additives, electrostatic charging and other techniques for pump and driver sizing)
Aquamarine
Type of precious stone typically used in the mining industry
Aqueous
1. Similar to or resembling water. 2. Referring to a solution made in water.
Artificial lift
[In refining crude oil...] Use of gas lift or sucker-rod pumping in order to lift oil that has naturally flowed to the well bore
Asbestos
Type of mineral typically used in the mining industry
Aseptic
Operation performed in a sterile environment designed to prevent contamination through introduction of bacteria.
Asphaltene
[In refining crude oil...] Asphalt-like product residual from the vacuum tower
Assay
Analytical procedure to determine purity or concentration of a specific substance in a mixture
Assembly / Outfit / Ensemble
General term to describe the combination of a number of items used to make up a whole. Example: a cartridge mounting assembly for a filter would include the cartridges and all items needed to install the assembly in the filter housing. Final assembly would be used to name the action of assembling all items into an end product.
Associated gas
Gas produced in conjunction with the normal or intended production of crude oil
Atapulgus clay / Attapulgus clay
Type mineral clay activated by specific thermal treatment and ground to fine particle size. Also the active ingredient in most Fuller’s earth.
Autoclave; Autoclaving
A chamber for sterilizing with saturated steam filters or equipment by using constant high temperature and pressure (121ºC, 15 psi); One method of ("terminal") sterilization using saturated steam.
Automatic air eliminator
[In refining crude oil...] An air vent that allows trapped air to escape during filling of a vessel. When unit is completely filled with fuel, an air eliminator automatically closes.
Average particle size
When, as a result of experimental observa­tions, the size distribution of a particulate system has been established on the basis of any two of its normal characteristics‐number, length, area or volume‐the group values obtained may be represented by an average value. The relative percentage frequency curve provides a means of establishing a mode, the most commonly occurring value; a median, the line dividing the area under the curve into equal parts; a mean, the vertical at the mean value passing through the center of gravity of a sheet of uniform thickness cut to the shape of the distribution.
Aviation gasoline / Avgas / Avgas 100LL
Fuel used for airplanes with internal combustion piston engines
Backpressure
Backward surge of pressure from downstream to upstream of the filter. Can be the result of closing a valve or air entrapped in a liquid system
Backwash
Reversal of a fluid flow through the filtration media, as an attempt to clean or "regenerate" a filter
Bacteria
Free living simple celled, microscopic organisms having a cell wall and characteristic shape (e.g., round, rod-like, spiral or filamentous); lack a defined nucleus
Bacterial challenge
Term used when testing the bacterial retention of a filter
Bar
Unit of measure of pressure. One bar = 14.5 PSI
Base plate (tapping plate)
Typically made of steel or aluminum, this part is threaded to attach the spin-on filter to the filter adapter and to allow fluid to exit the filter. It also includes punched holes to allow fluid to enter the filter.
Basic sediment and water (BS&W)
[In refining crude oil...] Emulsion of oil, water and sediment. Most purchasers of cruide oil specify the maximum BS&W content that they will accept, usually only a small fraction of 1 percent, although a BS&W up to 3 percent is common for transport.
Basket strainer
Housing for the removal of coarse bulk solids from liquid, air, or gas; element is a basket covered with a screen of a given mesh
Bentonite
Type of mineral typically used in the mining industry
Beryllium
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
Beta factor / Beta rating / Beta ratio
Measurement of a filter’s effectiveness by counting and grouping particles by size and determining the ratio of number of particles greater than a given size (n) in the influent fluid to the number of particles greater than size (n) in effluent fluid
Beta ratio
Measurement of filter retention efficiency. Ratio of particles exposed to a filter (as feed stream) to particles present in the filtrate.
Bioburden
The load or level of microorganisms in a substance to be filtered.
Biohazard
Biological refuse, possibly pathogenic in nature
Biosafety
Biological safety or non-toxicity of a substance to a living organism by passing tests as listed in the United States Pharmocopeia. Analogous to "chemically inert." For filters used in biological and health care application, Plastic Class-VI tests apply, which include Systemic Injection, Intracutaneous and Implantation Tests.
Boron
Type of mineral typically used in the mining industry
Brownian motion
Continuous zigzag motion of suspended minuscule particles. The motion is caused by impact of the molecules of the fluid upon the particles.
Bubble point pressure
Test to determine the maximum pore size openings of a filter. The differential gas pressure at which a wetting liquid (usually water) is pushed out of the largest pores and a steady stream of gas bubbles is emitted from a wetted filter under specific test conditions. Used as filter integrity test with specific, validated, pressure values for specific pore-size (and type) filters.
Buna-N
A Nitrile rubber seal compound. This is a generic term covering many formulations.
By-pass filter
Filter that is designed to accept a small percentage (10%) of the fluid in a lubrication system and pass it through a very restrictive media or centrifugal particulate separation. Typically, the fluid is sent to the by-pass filter and then directly back to the sump or crankcase. The fluid is said to have been “scrubbed” due to the restrictive small particle separation that occurs.
By-pass valve
Valve to pass the flow around the media or the housing, usually activated at a given differential pressure setting. In some systems this valve is built into the filter. In other systems, this valve is built into the casting to which the filter attaches. The valve allows oil to by-pass the filter when the filter element does not permit a proper flow of oil to lubricate the engine as in cold start or filter plugging situations.
Cake
Solids deposited on the filter media
Canister
Container or mounting mechanism for elements. May be an actual part of and performing a function of the elements, or may be used to hold the element in position. Basically the canister retains all of the filter components in one unit for ease of installation and removal.
Cathode
Negative pole or electrode of an electrolytic system
Cavitation corrosion/erosion
Formation of voids or air bubbles in a liquid when subjected to intense vibrations or sudden pressure drop. The shock waves created by the collapse of these voids or air bubbles can cause severe mechanical damage to the surfaces of metal.
Center tube
Component of an element or cartridge which supports the medium at the center of smallest diameter. Typically a perforated or louvered tube which forms the center of a filter element to support the media and through which the cleansed fluid returns to the machine.
Centipoise (cP)
Unit of absolute viscosity. 1 centipoise = 0.01 poise.
Centipoise (cP)
Unit of absolute viscosity. cP = N s/m2 where N = Newton (unit of force). One centipoise equals 0.01 poise.
Centistoke (cSt)
Unit of kinematic viscosity. 1 centistoke = 0.01 stoke.
Centistoke (cSt)
Unit of kinematic viscosity. cSt = m2/s. One centistoke also equals 0.01 stoke.
Centrifugation
Process of separating two substances of differing densities by high speed spinning to create centrifugal force. Typically used to separate suspended particles from liquid.
Charge stock
Fluid at the beginning of a refinery operation; it can be crude oil, residual, distillate or any number of other petroleum products
Check valve
Device that prevents air from siphoning into a vessel through the air eliminator
Chemical corrosion
Sulfur that is generated from the combustion of fuel mixed with water, which becomes acidic and degrades or corrodes the metal engine parts.
Christmass tree
[In refining crude oil...] Valve manifold at the top of a high-pressure producing well that controls the flow of one or more producing areas from a single well
Chromatography
Separation of substances in a mixture based on their affinity for certain solvents and solid surfaces
Clarification
To clear a liquid by filtration, by the addition of agents to precipitate solids, or by other means
Class 100 environment
Room environment maintained by air conditioning and filtration so that fewer than 100 particles of size 1µm or larger are found in a cubic foot of air
Clay
Medium used in some elements; usually a blend of attapulgas and montmorillonite clays.
Coal
Type of mineral typically used in the mining industry
Coalescer
Mechanical device which unites discrete droplets of one phase prior to being separated from a second phase. Can be accomplished only when both phases are immiscible. Requires a tight medium which is preferentially wettable and, by its nature of being tight, is also a good filtering material. Good coalescing permits gravity separation of the discontinuous phase. Coalescing may be accomplished by only a coalescer cartridge when the specific gravities of the two phases are widely separated. As the gravities’ difference becomes less, the two stage principle is generally required where finely coalesced discontinuous droplets are repelled by the second stage separator cartridges.
Coalescer element
Type of filter cartridge designed to remove solid contaminants, to break the emulsion of water in the product into droplets, and to enlarge these droplets so that they will drop out of the product. The flow direction is from the inside to the outside of the cartridge.
Coke
[In refining crude oil...] Cooked-asphalt or vacuum tower bottom. Coke is used in steel and aluminum foundries.
Coker
[In refining crude oil...] A reactor used specifically for making coke.
Cold sterilization
Removal of all bacteria by filtration through a sterilizing grade 0.2µm absolute filterç
Column
Tube or cylinder containing the chromatographic bed or stationary phase, usually in the form of beads
Compatibility
Non-reactivity of filter materials with the substance to be filtered
Compression spring
Device that holds a filter element in position inside the filter housing or canister. Some designs use a coil spring, while others use a leaf spring.
Concentrator
Apparatus or method for removing some of the water from a sample to concentrate the substances dissolved or suspended in it; usually used to concentrate solutions of biological macromolecules, e.g., proteins and nucleic acids
Contaminant / Contaminate
Foreign matter in a fluid which is accumulated from various sources such as system dirt, residue from wear of moving parts, atmospheric solids which settle in an open system. Contaminates tend to discolor a liquid, cause additional wear on moving parts, cause system upsets in process streams, or reduce the efficiency of a fluid. Water, as well a solid, may be considered a contaminate when the presence of water causes adverse results. The presence of contaminates, whether liquid or solid, is the basis on which the use of filters or filter separators are sought
Contour mining
Type of mining strategy
Copper
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
Core
Material used for the center of an element, generally of the wound design. May also be called a center tube when used in the coalescer, separator, or other type filter element. May also be a tube of fibers formed into an element which has sufficient strength to provide its own center core
Corrosion
Conversion of metals into oxides, hydrated oxides, carbonates, or other compounds due to the action of air or water, or both. Salts and sulphur are also important sources of corrosion. Removal of solids and water reduces the effect or speed of corrosion in many cases; and in other cases, corrosion inhibitors are used to reduce the effect or corrosion
Cracking
[In refining crude oil...] Refinery process in which heavy petroleum fractions are converted into lighter, more valuable fractions. The process is characterized by high temperatures (700+ degrees Fahrenheit) and can involve the use of a catalyst to increase the light-ends yield.
Critical operating pressure
Pressure above the normal or design limits of equipment may produce reduced efficiency or fail to function properly or possibly cause damage
Crossflow (tangential flow) filtration
Filtration system in which the feed stream flows across the filter media and exits as a retentate stream. The retentate stream is recycled to merge into the feed stream, while a portion of it passes through the filter media, resulting in concentration of the feed stream (referred to as concentrate).
Dead end (conventional) filtration
Feed stream flows in one direction only, perpendicular to and through the filter medium to emerge as product or filtrate
Deaerator
[In refining crude oil...] Vessel found on a LACT unit that removes free air prior to the meter
Deasphalted oil
[In refining crude oil...] Residuum oil that has undergone a special extraction process
Defferential pressure
Difference in pressure between the upstream and downstream sides of the filter. Also called P, psid or pressure drop. May be modified with applied, available, clean, dirty, initial, or maximum.
Dehydration
Removal of water or hydrocarbon in vapor form from an air or gas; also water from another immiscible liquid. Differs from entrainment removal in that the dew point of a gas stream will be lowered by vapor removal. Dehydration is a form of purification.
Deionized water (DI water)
Water processed through an ion exchange process by passing through both cation and anion exchange resin beds, or a mixed resin bed to remove both positive and negative ions. The purity of water is measured by its electric resistance. High quality DI water has a minimum resistance of 18 megohm per cm at 25ºC.
Depth filter
Matrix of randomly distributed fibers creating a tortuous path with pores of undefined size and shape
Desalination
Production of fresh (potable) water from sea water, salt or brackish water by one of several processes, e.g., distillation, flash distillation, electrodialysis or reverse osmosis if salt content is not too high
Desiccant
Drying agent or medium used in dehydration of air, gas, or liquids. Examples: silica gel, activated alumina, molecular sieve, etc.
Diamond
Type of precious stone typically used in the mining industry
Diatomaceous earth (DE)
Soft, earthy rock composed of the siliceous skeletons of small aquatic plants call diatoms (algae). Frequently used as material for a precoat of filter medium. Capable of absorbing 1.5 to 4 times its own weight in water. Insoluble in acids except hydrofluoric, and soluble in strong alkalies
Diatomaceous earth filtration
Filtration method that employs a medium consisting of microscopic shells of single celled plants known as diatoms
Diesel fuel / Gas oil
Petroleum-based product used as fuel for diesel engines
Differential pressure / Pressure differential
Difference in pressure between two given points
Differential pressure gauge/indicator
Indicator which signals the difference in pressure at two points
Differential pressure rating
Differential pressure specified as the maximum an element will withstand without structural failure
Diffusional flow test
Test to determine the integrity of a filter. The test is based on the measurement of diffusive (diffusional) flow of a gas through a wetted filter. Either the gas or the downstream liquid, displaced by the gas, may be measured. In addition, the transition from diffusional flow to bulk flow (i.e. bubble point) can be determined.
Diffusional interception
In filtering gas, at low flow velocities, very small particles <0.1µm are subject to Brownian motion. Thus they can move out of the gas streamlines and become intercepted by the filter.
Dioctyl phthalate (DOP)
Plasticizer that can be aerosolized to particles of extremely uniform size of the order of 0.3µm. Retention of DOP aerosol is used a s standard procedure for pore size rating of air filters.
Direct interception
In filtering gas, particles larger than the pores are removed by direct interception with the filter surface. Some particles smaller than pores can be removed as well depending on the probability, which is proportional to their size, of hitting the surface.
Direction of flow
Direction in which product flows through element; may be from inside to outside, from outside to inside, or end to end, depending on the design of the element
Dirt-holding capacity
Amount of dirt or debris retained by a filter in grams per unit area of the filter medium
Dissolved solid
Any solid material that will dissolve in the liquid that is being filtered, such as sugar in water
Distillate
[In refining crude oil...] Portion of crude oil that have been vaporized and condensed (distilled)
Down-hole pump
[In refining crude oil...] Multi-stage centrifugal turbine or progressive cavity pump located at the bottom of the well that pushes oil up the well bore. This can be electric, hydraulic or mechanically driven (using by the sucker-rod string)
Downstream
Portion of the product stream which has already passed through the system; portion of a system located after a filter, filter separator, etc.
Downstream side (of a filter)
Filtrate or product stream after the filtration process
Drain valve
Valve for draining off material which has been separated from a fluid stream. Also a diaphragm type valve that operates as part of a system to evacuate a discontinuous phase automatically. Typically found on spin-on fuel filter/water separators, this valves allows draining of water from the filter if need be prior to changing out the filter.
Drift mining
Type of mining strategy
Drug master file (DMF)
Written document that explains the formulation of an active ingredient, and is referenced in an Investigational New Drug (IND), New Drug Application (NDA), or Amendment to New Drug Application (ANDA) from a company.
Dry heat sterilization
Sterilization at or above 180ºC using a convection or forced air oven without moisture; may concurrently depyrogenate if adequate time and elevated temperature are employed.
Duplex filter
Assembly of two filters with valving for selection of either or both filters
Effective filtration area (EFA)
Actual portion of a filter through which fluid flows
Efficiency
Degree to which element will perform in removing solids and/or liquids
Effluent
1. Fluid which has passed through a filter (synonyms: filtrate; product stream); 2. Outflow from other types of treatments such as wastewater treatment plants.
EI / E&I / E/I
Common abbreviation of “Engineering & Installation”
Electrolytic corrosion
Two differing metals in contact with each other in a liquid, such as the cooling system, have an ion “exchange.” One metal “gives off” to the other. The degradation of one metal to the other is measured in an ASTM test known as the Corrosion in Glassware test.
Emerald
Type of precious stone typically used in the mining industry
Emulsion
Mixture of fluids, specifically crude oil and water. Usually these mixtures are of water in oil. Sometimes, however, they are oil in water, also known as “reverse emulsions.” Breaking a crude oil emulsion to separate the clean oil requires displacing the emulsifier and its film. This allows the water to coalesce into heavier droplets that can drop out of the oil. Emulsions are very stable and will not usually break by themselves. To separate, emulsions must be heated; chemical additives, electrostatic charging and other techniques can also possibly be used.
End cap / End fitting
Shallow annular dish into which the ends of a filter cylinder are adhesively bonded. Materials of construction could be plastic, metal, paper, or a combination, formed to seal the two ends of a filter cartridge or element. Sealing compound is commonly placed in the end caps first, then the media is inserted into the compound. In some instances, the media is directly embedded to the end cap itself.
End seal
Bond between the end cap and the filter medium. In cartridges of pleated paper construction this is frequently an epoxide, polyurethane, or nitrile­ phenolic adhesive. Also refers to the sealing device which seals the end cap of a cartridge to its housing.
Enhanced oil recovery (EOR)
See “Tertiary oil recovery”
Environment Protection Agency (EPA)
Agency from the United States that establishes guidelines and regulations in order to protect the environment
EPC
Common abbreviation of “Engineering, Procurement, and Construction”
EPC
Common abbreviation of “Engineering, Procurement, Construction”
EPCI
Common abbreviation of “Engineering, Procurement, Construction, and Installation”
Erosion
Mechanical wearing away of metal by the action of liquid or gas.
Escherichia coli (E. coli)
Most prevalent bacteria in the gastrointestical tract of humans and animals. It occurs in solids and water as a result of fecal contamination.
ETO sterilization
Chemical sterilization using ethylene oxide usually 12:88 (12% ETO in Freon). Employs a slightly elevated temperature, 66ºC (150ºF), and high relative humidity to facilitate permeation of the ethylene oxide into the material being sterilized.
Extractables
Chemicals which may be leached from a filter during a filtration process; usually tested for by soaking in water under controlled conditions; may be removed by pre-flushing with suitable liquid.
Feed stock
[In refining crude oil...] See “Charge stock”
Fermentation
Generally referred to as enzymatically controlled breakdown of an energy rich compound (as a sugar to produce ethyl alcohol, carbon dioxide, and energy) by the action of yeasts which carry the necessary enzymes (bacterial fermentations also occur).
Fiberglass / Glass fiber
Proper reference to a fibrous material made from glass that is commonly used as a filter and separator medium. May be used in blanket or tube form and, due to the random dispersal of the fibers, makes good filter medium. Are hydrophilic (water wettable) and perform the function of coalescing immiscible liquids for separation. May be used effectively on compressed air, gas, or liquids which are acidic but only slightly caustic.
Filter
Term generally applied to a device used to remove solid contaminate from a liquid or gas. A filter, as referred to in the industry today, is limited to a device which removes solid contaminates only. If a device is used to remove solid and liquid contaminates, it is referred to in general terms as a separator, filter separator, or entrainment separator. The term filter is sometimes erroneously used to describe the medium used inside the housing or filter case, but the correct use should be filter element, cartridge, etc.
Filter
Device for carrying out filtration which consists of the filter medium and suitable holder for constraining and supporting the filter in the fluid path.
Filter
To pass a fluid that contains particles through a filter medium whereby particles are removed from the fluid
Filter adapter (adapter base)
A cast or machined device used to hold a filter in a position and to introduce oil into the filter. An adapter is used with spin-on filters as well as with shell-type filters. It includes a gasket sealing groove or surface, inlet and outlet ports and either a stud bolt or a threaded hole for attachment of the filter.
Filter coalescer
Single stage, horizontal housing for coalescing and separating one immiscible fluid from another and the removal of solids. Generally recommended for use where continuous phase has a light gravity. Available with various efficiencies.
Filter efficiency
Measurement of how well a filter retains particles. Usually expressed as the percentage of retention of particles of a specific size by a filter; see also "Beta Ratio" and "Log Reduction Value."
Filter efficiency rating / Filter retention rating
Measurement of the average efficiency of a filter medium using the Multi‐Pass Test where the average filtration (BETA) ratio = 2.0
Filter element
Filter media that may be, and usually is, cylindrical and is disposed of when it reaches a set limit or restriction as it removes contaminant and holds it. Cartridges may be of pleated paper, pleated wire screen, fiber packed or wound in a core or fibrous board material cut into discs and stacked atop each other to form a cylinder.
Filter housing
Container designed to hold filters and to direct the flow so that contaminants are permanently removed from the flow stream.
Filter media migration
Problem caused by a filter medium which is constructed of a non-continuous or fibrous polymeric matrix such that portions of the filter change structure causing undefined pore size/distribution, as a function of fluid flow.
Filter medium
Permeable material that removes particles from a fluid being filtered.
Filter medium / Filter media
Porous material mounted on a plate or frame which separates the solids from the liquids in filtering. Also referred to as filter cloth, filter plate, or septum. Available in various forms, including cellulose, paper, as well as synthetic and blended materials.
Filter separator
Housing which removes solids and entrained liquid from another liquid or gas. Uses some combination of a baffle and/or coalescer, filter, or separator element. May be single‐stage, two‐stage, or single or two‐stage with prefilter section for gross solids removal. Common application is the removal of water from gas or another immiscible liquid. General reference to term implies the equipment is capable of both filtration and separation to specific degrees of efficiencies
Filter system / Filtration system
The combination of a filter and associated hardware required for the filtration process
Filtrate
Liquid which has passed through the filter; fluid that has been separated from the solids in the slurry being filtered. Also referred to as discharge liquor, effluent, mother liquor, solute, or strong liquor
Filtrate
Effluent of a filtration process. The filtered product.
Filtration
Process of removing solid particles from liquid or gas by forcing them through a porous medium
Filtration
Process by which particles are removed from a fluid by passing the fluid through a permeable material.
Filtration rate
Volume of liquid that passes through a given area of filter in a specific time. Usually expressed as gallons per square foot per minute (or hour)
Flash pasteurization
Process of briefly heating a beverage to destroy objectionable enzymes and microorganisms. See "Pasteurization".
Float control
[In refining crude oil...] Device that rides the interface between fuel and water, and by its up and down movement, opens and closes ports to generate hydraulic signals to automatic valves. (It’s recommended to use the “ballast” type float control for easier checking of the integrity of the float ball.)
Flow / Flow rate / Volumetric flow
Rate at which product is passed through a housing or system; generally expressed as gallons per minute, barrels per hour, barrels per day, actual or standard cubic feet per minute, hour, day, etc.
Flow decay
Decrease in flow rate as a result of filter plugging or clogging.
Flow decay test
Experiment to determine flow rate and throughput of a filter type or combination of filters on a specific liquid, usually by using a small area filters, to determine the sizing of a filter system by extrapolation.
Flow rate
Speed at which a liquid flows and is measured in gallons or liters per minute. Flow rate of a liquid can be affected by the liquids' viscosity, differential pressure, temperature and type of filter used.
Fluid cleanliness level / Degree of filtration
Level of cleanliness of a fluid, usually measured in milligrams in a given volume such as quart, liter, gallon, etc.
FM
Common abbreviation of “Factory Mutual Research Corporation”
Forward flow test
Integrity test measuring air diffusion. See "Diffusional Flow Test."
Fractionation
In densitometry, the division of peaks into fractions in order to quantitate the electrophoretically separated bands. In chemistry, separation of a mixture of components into different portions (fractions).
Frazier permeometer
Device for testing porosity. The normal measure­ment is the air flow in CFM passed through one square foot of fabric at 1/2” water pressure. Fabrics with rating of 1 to 10 CFM are considered very tight, whereas cloths that test at 450 to 500 CFM are extremely porous. The test is used on woven and non‐woven materials
Free-gas knockout (FGKO)
See “Free-water knockout”
Free-water knockout (FWKO)
Pressure vessel used to separate free water from degassed crude oil and crude oil-water emulsion. The FWKO is used after the gas separation and before the heater (emulsion) treaters.
Full-flow filter
All of the oil that goes through this filter moves on to lubricate the engine. This filter removes the larger particles of contaminant that may be harmful to the engine from the oil. All oil is cleaned when a full-flow filter is used.. We will include additional terms in future editions of Tech Tips.
Gas
State of matter in which molecules move freely causing matter to expand indefinitely, occupying the total volume available. Definition sometimes includes a reference to critical temperature, i.e., temperature above which liquefaction does not occur by pressure
Gas Chromatography (GC)
Similar to HPLC except that mobile phase is an inert gas such as helium.
Gas lift
Injection of gas into an oil well
Gas oil
[In refining crude oil...] Light distillate often used to flush asphalt or vacuum tower bottom systems
Gasket
Material inserted between contact surfaces of a joint to ensure a fluid-tight seal.
Gasket / Sealing gasket
Material inserted between contact surfaces of a joint to ensure a fluid‐tight seal. It should not form a permanent bond. Usually softer than surfaces with which it is in contact. Materials of construction are dependent on the temperature, pressure, and chemical nature of the confined fluid
Gathering
[In refining crude oil...] Pumping service that brings the flows of a number of producing wells together for subsequent pumping into a pipeline
Gauge pressure
Pressure measured by a pressure gauge. Pressure above ambient pressure. Symbolized as psig when the pressure is expressed in psi units.
Glycol
Family of alcohols; clear, colorless, and soluble to varying degrees in water, alcohol, ether, benzene, etc. Has a wide range of usage such as coolants, antifreeze and processes
Gold
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
GoM / GOM
Gulf of Mexico
Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs)
Regulations promulgated by the Food and Drug Administration governing the manufacture of drugs (Ref. Code of Federal Regulations 21 CFR 210 & 211), medical devices (21 CFR 820), and Large Volume Parenterals (21 CFR 212 proposed).
Graphite
Type of mineral typically used in the mining industry
Groundwater testing
Process of collecting and analyzing groundwater in areas where contamination is suspected such as dumpsites and landfills. Look for pesticides, dissolved metals, etc.
Gurley
Term derived from name of manufacturer of permeometers, densitometers, and other instruments which use air to measure porosity, density and stiffness of paper. It is also possible for Gurley equipment to be used on porous or permeable material other than paper. Gurley instruments are used by TAPPI, the association of paper manufacturers. Porosity ratings are given in the number of seconds taken for 300 cc of air to pass through one square inch of material. Frazier and Gurley numbers are not convert­ible—no specific Frazier number equals a certain Gurley number. Frazier numbers are possibly more significant in that they reflect porosity specifica­tions
Health Industry Manufacturer's Association (HIMA)
Trade association whose membership includes both pharmaceutical manufacturers and filter manufacturers, that defines and sets standards governing the validation of filters for sterilizing liquids.
High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)
Allows separation and analysis of very small quantities of complex mixtures with high resolution and great sensitivity. Purpose: identify nature of a compound or measure amount or concentration of a compound.
Hold-up volume / Retention volume
Volume of fluid retained in a filter and/or housing after purging the assemble with air or suitable gas.
Hydrocarbon
Any one of a large number of compounds composed primarily of elements carbon and hydrogen. As they increase in molecular weight and boiling point, they may be respectively gases, liquids or solids.
Hydrophilic
Having an affinity for water; a membrane which will wet with aqueous solutions.
Hydrophobic
Membrane which cannot be wetted by and repels aqueous and other high surface tension fluids; when pre-wetted with low surface tension fluid, such as alcohol, the filter will then wet with water.
Impaction
Retention mechanism in gas filtration. Also called Inertial Collection and Inertial Impact. As the gas stream lines bed in the vicinity of the filter, the carried particles continue in a straight line due to their inertia and impact the filter. Effective primarily for particles about 0.3µm and larger, at high gas velocities and low filter porosity.
In situ
Latin for "in place" or “on site”. Term typically refers to sterilization or integrity testing of a filter in the system rather than as an ancillary operation such as in autoclave or bubble point stand.
In-line / Inline / On-line / Online
With regards to mixing and conditioning, in‐line means the mixing of liquids with liquids or solids with liquids, or suspensions of solids in liquids with liquids, within a pipework system using metering units and automated control, which eliminates the requirement for separate storage tanks and mixing compartments
In-line filter
Filter or strainer arranged as a continuous flow unit in a pipeline or similar location
Incoterms / International Commercial Terms
Series of pre-defined commercial terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce relating to international commercial law, particularly transportation and delivery of merchandise
Inert
Chemical inactivity; unable to move; totally unreactive.
Inertial collection
See "Impaction"
Inertial impact / Inertial collection
See "Impaction"
Initial pressure drop
Loss in differential pressure between two points upon the start of flow through a housing using new elements
Inlet pressure
The pressure entering the inlet side of the filter. Also called upstream pressure or line pressure.
Integrity test
Non-destructive test which is used to predict the functional performance of a filter. The valid use of this test requires that it be correlated to standardized bacterial or particle retention test. Examples: Bubble Point Test, Diffusion Test, Forward Flow Test, Pressure Hold Test.
Interception
See "Direct Interception"
Interchange (find an equivalent)
Replace one product with another equivalent in form and function
Interchangeable
One particular element which may be used in place of another particular element. Dimensions of both must be equal. Element being substituted frequently has more desirable characteristics than Element which it replaces. Refers primarily to dimensional interchangeabil­ty and must be for the same general applications
IOM
Common abbreviation of “Installation, Operation, and Maintenance”
IOM manual
Installation, operating, and maintenance manual
Ion exchange columns
Vessels filled with ion exchange resin (anion, cation, or mixed) for producing conditioned or DI Water. Also, type of column used for Ion Exchange Chromatography (IEC).
Iron ore
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
Isotropic (symmetric) membrane
Membrane in which the pore openings are the same diameter throughout the thickness and on both sides of the membrane. Such membranes are non-directional, i.e., their flow characteristics are independent of which side faces the feed stream.
Jet A-1 fuel
Unleaded kerosene
Jet B fuel
Naphtha-kerosene blend
Jet fuel / Aviation turbine fuel (ATF) / Avtur
Petroleum product used as fuel for jet engines
Kaolin
Type of mineral typically used in the mining industry
Kerosene
Petroleum liquid used as fuel, or for heating purposes
Kinematic viscosity
Ratio of absolute viscosity (poise) to the specific gravity of a fluid. The unit of kinematic viscosity is the stoke. See "Centipoise" and "Centistoke".
Lanthanides
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
Large volume parenteral (LVP)
Intravenous injection packaged in containers of 100 – 1000 mL used to correct electrolytic imbalances, replace body fluid and provide general nutrition.
Lead
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
Lease automatic custody transfer unit (LACT unit)
[In refining crude oil...] Automatic measuring system used where oil is measured for sale and transfer to a pipeline
Light ends
[In refining crude oil...] Less viscous products. These include more valuable and sought-after refinery products, such as distillates, gasoline, #2 F.O., and gas oil
Limestone
Type of mineral typically used in the mining industry
Line pressure
Pressure in the supply line. Also called "inlet pressure" or "upstream pressure"
Liquid
Product stream in liquid filtration and liquid filtration separation. Also may be the material to be removed by a liquid or gas entrainment separator
Lithium
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
Live steam sterilization
Sterilization by flowing saturated steam through a vented vessel or system, usually at 125ºC and 20 psi (but can be performed up to 140ºC and 35 PSI)
Log reduction value (LRV)
Logarithm to the base 10 of the ratio or organisms in the feed to organisms in the filtrate. Example: Log10(109/2) = 9.7. Also used as a ratio of in/out bioburden in other sterilization methods such as autoclaving.
Macrofiltration
removal of particles between 5 micron to 1 millimeter in diameter
Magnesium
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
Magnesium
Type of mineral typically used in the mining industry
Manual drain
[In refining crude oil...] Valve that is opened daily to remove any accumulated water and to sample the fuel in the sump. This also helps to evaluate the condition of the coalescer. It is also opened to completely drain the vessel when changing elements
Maximum Allowable Pressure Drop (MAPD)
Maximum pressure differential of a housing under specified product and flow condition
Maximum operating pressure
Maximum pressure allowed in a system
Mean flow pore measurement
Theoretical diameter of the mean pore. It is calculated as the diameter of the pore of a wetted membrane partially voided of liquid such that air flow of the partially wetted membrane is equal to ý the dry air flow.
Media
Material through which fluid passes in the process of filtration and which retains particles. Also, the nutrients containing solutions in which cells or microorganisms are grown.
Media migration
Migration of the materials making up the filter medium. May cause contamination of the filtrate.
Membrane filter
Continuous matrix with pores of defined size.
Mercury
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
Microfiltration
removal of particles between 0.1 micron to 5 micron in diameter
Microfiltration
Separation of particles ranging from 0.1µm to 10µm from a fluid by passing the fluid through a membrane. Used for clarification, sterilization or to detect or analyze bacteria and other organisms and particulate matter.
Micrometer / Micron (m, or μ)
Unit of measure equivalent to 1/1,000,000 of a meter (1µm = 10-6µm = .000039 in); 25.4µm = 0.001 inch; 60µm = approximately the diameter of a human hair.
Mil
Unit of measure equal to one thousandth of an inch. 1 mil = 0.001 in = 0.025 mm.
Minimum [critical] bubble point pressure
Filter specification derived from diffusional flow – bubble point curves for a number of filters. It is a diffusional flow pressure just before the onset of bulk flow.
Mist
Visible water or hydrocarbon vapor; floating or failing in fine drops
Mixed cellulose esters
Synthetic materials derived from naturally occurring cellulose. First materials used in the manufacture of membrane filters. Mixed cellulose esters membranes are used in a wide variety of applications, e.g., concentration of bacteria in water analysis (GN-6) and sampling of air.
MMSCFD
Common abbreviation of “Million standard cubic feet per day”
MRO
Common abbreviation of “Maintenance, Repair, and Operations”
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
Develops basic methodology for analytical test procedures.
NFPA
National Fire Protection Association
Nickel
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
Niobium
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
Nitrile rubber / Buna-N / Buna nitrile
Synthetic rubber frequently used as a gasket for sealing housing closures, flanges, and filter elements
Nominal
Approximate
Non-fiber releasing (NFR)
Filter which will not release fibers into the filtrate
Non-silicate mineral
Type of mineral typically used in the mining industry
Nozzle
Connection at the inlet and outlet of a housing or a hose through which fluid flows; or a connection in a housing which permits connecting of accessories, etc.
Nylon
Thermoplastic, polymeric material that has high mechanical strength & compatibility with many different kinds of chemicals. When used as a membrane it is hydrophilic.
Oil sands
Type of mineral typically used in the mining industry
Opal
Type of precious stone typically used in the mining industry
Organic
Related to or derived from a living organism. Always contains carbon.
Outlet pressure
Pressure exiting the outlet side of the filter. Also called downstream pressure.
P&ID
Common abbreviation of “Piping & Instrumentation Diagram”
Palladium
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
Parallel filtration
Branching a filtration setup so that two assemblies of the same pore size are in parallel, to increase flow rate or simplify filter changes.
Particle
Single piece of solid material which is small in relation to its environment. Normally characterized by its size and shape
Particle
Any discrete unit of material structure; a discernible mass having an observable length, width, thickness, size and shape.
Particle count
Practice of counting particles of solid matter in groups based on relative size. Frequently used in engineering a filter to a specific task or to evaluate the performance of a filter under specific operating conditions. When used as data to engineer a filter, proper consideration can be given the type of medium to be used, expectant life of the medium, and the true cost of operation
Particle counter
Device that counts particles of solid matter in groups based on relative size. Frequently used in engineering a filter to a specific task or to evaluate the performance of a filter under specific operating conditions. When used as data to engineer a filter, proper consideration can be given the type of medium to be used, expectant life of the medium, and the true cost of operation
Particle size distribution
Tabulation resulting from a particle count of solids grouped by specified micron sizes to determine the condition of either the influent or effluent stream. Usually expressed in percentage of total solids to the specific group. Example: 31% in the 6 to 10 micron group
Particles / Particulate
Of or relating to minute, separate particles
Particulate
Relating to or occurring in the form of fine particles.
Parts Per Million (PPM)
Unit of measure of solid substance concentration in a liquid. e.g., 3 ppm would be equivalent to 3 pounds of solids in 1,000,000 pounds of water
Pasteurization
Partial sterilization of a substance and especially a liquid (as milk) at a temperature and time of exposure that destroys objectionable organisms without a major chemical alteration of the substance. Maintaining the high temperature for only a short period of time is referred to as 'flash' pasteurization.
Peridot
Type of precious stone typically used in the mining industry
Peristaltic pump
Pump functioning by alternate pinching and release of tubing which drives the fluid forward in a pulsing action. The major advantage's are that the peristaltic pump is noninvasive, i.e., the pump does not contact the fluid being filtered, only the inner wall of the tubing contacts the fluid and the low shear imparted.
Permeability
Degree to which a fluid will pass through a permeable substance under specified conditions. The space or void volume between molecules allowing fluid flow.
Permeate
Fluid which passes through a membrane
pH
Unit of meaasure of hydrogen ion concentration. Measures a substance's acidity or alkalinity, with 7 being "neutral". Mathematically, the inverse (negative) logarithm to the base 10 of hydrogen ion concentration
Phase separation / Stage separation
Operation in which the well stream is passed through two or more separators that are arranged in series.
Pipeline pig / Pigger
Device used to clean the inside of a pipeline or to isolate different products. It resembles a bullet, has an outside diameter about equal to the pipe’s inside diameter and may have scrappers or brushes, to help remove deposits. Pigs are “pumped” through the line and removed at clean-out locations.
Pipeline service
[In refining crude oil...] Pumping service that usually covers distances of 10 to 50 miles (20 to 90 kilometers). Intermediate pumping stations are the norm on long-distance pipelines
Pitting corrosion
Localized attack in which the depth of penetration is at least the same order as the diameter of the area corroded. A dangerous form of corrosion.
Platinum
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
Pleated
Physical form of cartridge made into a convoluted form to resemble the folds in an accordion
Poise
Standard unit of measure of dynamic viscosity
Poise
Unit of measure of absolute viscosity; numerically equal to the force required to move a plane surface of one square centimeter over another plane surface at the rate of one centimeter per second when the surfaces are separated by a layer of fluid one centimeter in thickness (dyne sec/cm2).
POL
Common abbreviation of “Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricants”
Polypropylene
Thermoplastic polymeric material which is resistant to a broad range of chemicals. When used as a membrane, polypropylene is hydrophobic.
Polysulfone
Commonly used membrane material with excellent flow rates, high mechanical strength, resistant to a broad range of temperatures (can be sterilized) and is hydrophilic. Is not resistant to exposure to many organic solvents.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) / Teflon
Material commercially known as “Teflon”, highly durable and resistant to a broad range of temperatures and chemicals. PTFE is hydrophobic.
Polyurethane / Urethane
Synthetic plastic formed by action of di‐isocyanates on dihydric alcohols, polyesters or polyethers
Pore size
Diameter of pore in membrane
Pore size-absolute rating
Rated pore size of a filter at which particles equal or larger than the rated pore size are retained with 100% efficiency.
Porosity
Percentage of the filter volume which is void space (syn. Void volume). Also, number of pores per square centimeter of filter area.
Post seal
A means of sealing the filter to a post located on the filter adapter or within the filter housing. This component seals on its inside diameter radially around the post.
Post-transition metal
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
Potable water
Water that is safe to drink
Prefilter
Filter for removing gross contaminate before the product stream enters a filter separator. Used to remove gross solids.
Prefilter coalescer separator / Prefilter coalescing separator
Three‐stage housing for use where stream carries an unusually high amount of solids; prefilter elements in first stage remove bulk of solids and permit coalescer and separator elements in next two stages to function more effectively for phase separation
Pressure drop / Delta-P / Δp
Difference in pressure between two points, generally at the inlet and outlet of a filter or a filter separator. Measured in pounds per square inch gauge, or inches of mercury (Δp, pronounced “Delta-P”, is a commonly used symbol denoting the pressure drop across a filter)
Pressure gauge
The direct reading differential pressure gauge is used to measure the pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of a filter/separator, thus providing an indication of element condition
Pressure relief valve
Opening point set to open at a desired pressure to exhaust excess pressure built up in a system, probably due to thermal expansion in a non-flow condition
Primary recovery
[In refining crude oil...] Natural oil-field formation pressure sufficient to force oil to the surface; or the use of artificial lift
Process stream
[In refining crude oil...] Process of the flow of fluid in the refinery process
Protein binding
Adsorption of a protein to a surface such as a cellulose nitrate or nylon membrane due to several types of interactions between the protein molecules and the surface.
Prover
[In refining crude oil...] Unit brought to production fields to confirm meter accuracy, usually once per month. A prover is run in parallel with a meter on a LACT unit.
Pseudomonas diminuta
Type of bacteria used in sterility testing. One of the smallest bacteria (0.3µm in diameter), used to challenge a sterilizing grade filter during validation testing. Under HIMA challenge conditions (107 c.f.u./cm2 EFA), sterilizing grade filters must retain all 100% of P. diminuta.
Recovery
Ability of a filter to recover bacteria (or other defined particles) from a solution. In Membrane Filtration Technique, expressed as percent of bacteria originally present or observed on a comparable pour plate.
Residuum (residual) oil
Heavier end-products of crude oil that remain (residue) after the refining process, generally characterized by high viscosity
Retainer
Any device that holds a component in place
Retention
Ability of a filter to retain particles (total number or those of a specific size) suspended in a gas or liquid. Expressed as a percent of particles originally present.
Retention volume
See "Hold-up Volume"
Reverse osmosis (RO)
Filtration separation method (usually crossflow or stirred cell type) operating at 200-1500 PSI in order to overcome osmotic pressure. Pore sizes are typically in the order of 10-10 meters (107mm). Efficiency is usually described in terms of percent salt rejection with 90% being common.
Ruby
Type of precious stone typically used in the mining industry
Salt
Type of mineral typically used in the mining industry
Sampling probe
[In refining crude oil...] In-line sampling point that penetrates through the pipe coupling that is welded to the pipe. There is no possibility of rust and dirt that usually collects in stagnant pockets reaching the filter membrane test capsule
Sanitize
To make clean by removing dirt and other extraneous materials with soap and general disinfectant so as to reduce possibility of growth and spread of pathogenic organisms.
Sapphire
Type of precious stone typically used in the mining industry
Schedule (SCH)
Chart of dimensions, weight, and thickness of piping
Screening
Removal of particles above 1 millimeter in diameter
Seaming lid
This part joins the canister to the baseplate on a spin-on filter and in some cases holds the sealing gasket in place.
Secondary recovery
[In refining crude oil...] Water-flooding treatment of the formation, in order to drive reservoir fluids to the well bore
Separation
Action of separating solids or liquids from fluids. May be accomplished by impingement, filtration, or by coalescing. Term “separation” is used by some to refer to separation of liquids; also used to describe the action in the second stage of two-stage separation
Separator
Type of filtration equipment, typically a type of pressure vessel, used to separate well-stream gas from free liquids.
Separator element
Type of filter cartridge that repels coalesced water droplets and prevents them from going downstream. The flow direction is from the outside to the inside of the cartridge.
Serial filtration
Filtration through two or more filters of decreasing pore size one after the other to increase throughput, filtration efficiency, or to protect the final filter.
Shaft mining
Type of mining strategy
Shipping
Usually refers to pumping services in which crude oil – with or without water – is pumped (“shipped”) from an offshore platform to onshore facilities, via an underwater pipeline.
SI
International system of units, abbreviated “SI” from French: Système International d'Unités
Sieve
Filter with straight-though capillary pores with identical dimension, e.g. a screen filter.
Silicate mineral
Type of mineral typically used in the mining industry
Silver
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
Skid-mounted
One or more housings with pump and motor, all mounted on a portable platform
Slug valve
[In refining crude oil...] Device that, upon detecting excessive water build-up, on signal from the float control, will shut down all flow through a system until excess water can be drained off. The slug valve can be provided with a rate-of-flow control which will prevent excessive flow rates through the filter/separator
Small volume parenteral (SVP)
Typically administered to a patient as a bolus or single syringe injection.
Sour gas
Natural gas containing relatively large amounts of sulfur or sulfur compounds, usually hydrogen sulfide (HS)
Sparging
Process by which steam, compressed air, or gas is forced into a liquid through perforations or nozzles in a pipe as part of fermentation.
Spin-on filter
Filter that typically includes a cartridge or element contained within a threaded canister assembly, which allows the filter to be attached to and removed from the filter adapter (adapter base). Filter change is quick by spinning off the used unit from a fixed filter head and quickly spinning on a replacement unit.
Spinel
Type of precious stone typically used in the mining industry
Stand pipe
Serves to maintain a certain level of oil within the filter following engine shutdown. May also be used as the oil inlet or outlet tube and in some filters contains the pressure differential valve.
Standard (normal) pressure
Pressure of 1 atmosphere (14.70 psi or 760 mm of mercury) to which measurements of quantities dependent on pressure are often referred.
Standard cubic feet per minute (SCFM)
Units of gas flow rate. A standard cubic foot is measured as volume of gas at 760 millimeters of mercury pressure (1 bar) and 0ºC temperature.
Standard operating procedure (SOP)
Written document that explains how to complete a specific production-oriented task.
Steam flooding
Steam injected under high pressure. Used when water flooding is ineffective
Sterile, sterility, sterilization
To make or be free of any viable microorganisms. Demonstrated by testing to show the absence of microorganisms.
Sterilizing filter
Non-fiber releasing filter which produces an effluent in which no microorganisms are demonstrable when tested by the method specified in the current edition of the United Sates Pharmocopeia. Usually accepted as 0.2µm pore-size absolute rating.
Stoke
Standard unit of measure of kinematic viscosity
Substrate
Substance on which an enzyme or ferment acts; a basic material used in making filter medium, usually in a deposit type process
Sucker-rod pumping
[In refining crude oil...] A “string” of rods reciprocated by a balance-beam surface mechanism to bring oil up, using a system of check valves on the end of the string at the bottom of the well
Sump
Collecting area of a housing, located downstream from the coalescer elements, in which coalesced droplets of the dispersed phase are deposited; also called water leg. May also be used to collect solids in applications where gross solids are present in a stream; also called mud sump
Surface area / Effective area
Area of medium exposed to flow and usable for its intended purpose: coalescing, filtering or separating. Opposite of blind spots or dead area
Surface mining
Type of mining strategy
Surface tension / Interfacial tension
Tendency of the surface of a liquid to contract to the smallest area possible under the existing circumstances. Defined as a force in dynes acting on a line 1 cm long lying in the surface of the liquid.
Surfactant
Abbreviation for Surface Active Agent, which is sometimes called emulsifier or wetting agent. Term first appeared in hydrocar­bons with the advent of the catalytic cracking process in refining. Caused by the forming of sodium sulfonate and sodium napthanate molecules. Affects liquid-liquid separation by reducing interfacial tension and forming into a slime which blinds off the fibers used in coalescing media
Surfactant
Soluble compound that reduces the surface tension of a liquid, or reduces interfacial tension between two liquids (causing formation or micelles) or between a liquid and a solid, thereby functioning as a wetting agent.
Suspended solid
Any solid that does not dissolve in liquid; that which remains suspended and can be removed by filtration
Tantalum
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
Tare
Deduction of weight, made in allowance for the weight of a container or medium; the initial weight of a filter.
Tensile strength
Resistance to breaking as a function of tensile force (tension). The amount of force required to break a membrane by stretching. Usually accompanied by measurement of Elongation-at-Break, the total amount of stretching realized at break, expressed as percent of the original length.
Tertiary oil recovery
Method that tends to alter the condition of crude oil so that it will flow to a well bore. Included are various chemical and gas injection methods, as well as thermal methods, such as steam injection and on-site combustion.
Throughput
Mmount of solution which will pass through a filter prior to clogging.
Tortuousity
Imaginary continuous course or path that can be traced from a point on the upstream side of a filter to a point on the downstream side. Pathway traveled by the liquid or gas during filtration.
Total dissolved solids (TDS)
Portion of the total solids in the sample that passes through the filter and is indicated by the increase in weight in the vessel after the filtrate has been dried at 180ºC.
Total solids
Material residue left in the vessel after evaporation of a sample and its subsequent drying in an oven at 103-105ºC. The increase in weight over that of the empty vessel represents the total solids. Used in analyzing drinking water.
Total suspended solids (TSS)
Portion retained on the filter and indicated by an increase in the weight of the filter after drying at 103-105ºC. Used in analyzing drinking water.
Transition metal
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
Trona
Type of mineral typically used in the mining industry
Tungsten
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
Ultrafiltration (UF)
Removal of particles below 0.1 micron in diameter
Ultrafiltration (UF)
Separation method operating at 50-200 psi in crossflow filtration mode. Efficiency is approximately 90%. Used to separate large molecules according to their molecular weight.
Underground mining
Type of mining strategy
Upstream side (of filter)
Feed-side of a filter
Uranium
Type of mineral typically used in the mining industry
v/v %
Shorthand notation of the formula: (Volume of solute)/(Volume of solution) x 100%
Vacuum
Depression of pressure below atmospheric pressure.
Vacuum dehydrator
Device that removes water or hydrocarbon in vapor form from an air or gas; it may also remove water from another immiscible liquid
Vacuum tower bottom
[In refining crude oil...] See “Asphaltene”
Validation
Demonstration that a process or product does what it is supposed to do by challenging the system and providing complete documentation.
Vanadium
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry
Vermiculite
Type of mineral typically used in the mining industry
Viscosity
Measure of a liquid's resistance to flow, in terms of its “degree of fluidity”. Technically, the property of fluids’ molecular structure by virtue of which they resist flow. Resistance to flow exhibited by a liquid resulting from the combined effects of cohesion and adhesion. Units of measurement are poise and stoke. A liquid has a viscosity of one poise if a force of one dyne per square centimeter causes two parallel liquid surfaces one square centimeter in area and one centimeter apart to move past one another at a rate of one centimeter per second. There are a great many crude and empirical methods for measuring viscosity which generally involve measurement of the time of flow or movement of a ball, ring, or other object in a specially shaped or sized apparatus
Viscosity
Resistance to flow as a function of force, or gradual yielding of force. Viscosity is in units of centipoises or centistokes. For a given filter and differential pressure, flow rate will decrease as viscosity increases; e.g. oil will have a flow rate much slower than water. The viscosity of water is 1 centipoise.
Volatile
Evaporates easily, converts easily from liquid form to gas.
Wall thickness (WT)
Typically used to refer to the thickness of a pipe’s wall
Water breakthrough test
Integrity test for hydrophobic filters in which the resistance to water flow is overcome by a specific pressure such that water will flow through a correspondingly specific pore size of the filter. Also called a water intrusion test. Useful test to determine gross loss of integrity (e.g., installation integrity) and filter hydrophobicity.
Water cut
Percentage of water in crude oil, as it comes from the well; if excessively high, the well may be shut down for financial reasons
Water flooding
[In refining crude oil...] Injection of water – with or without additives – into separate water-injection wells, in order to drive reservoir fluids to the oil-well bore and improve recovery
Water gauge (Wg)
Measurement of inches of water
Water treater
Vessel, or a series of vessels, used to break oil-water emulsions, separating produced water from the crude oil. They are frequently “heater treaters,” which heat the oil-water mixture and use gravity and mechanical methods to break the emulsion.
Water-in-fuel (WIF) sensor
Device that sends an electrical signal to notify the end user if water has reached a certain level within the filter. Included within some fuel filters / fuel-water separators
Wetting agent
Surfactant added to a membrane to assure complete intrusion (wetting) by a high surface tension fluid such as water.
Wire mesh / Wire cloth
Number of openings, or fractions of openings, in a lineal inch of wire cloth. Where the fractional part of an inch is specified, for example 1/2 mesh or 1/2” mesh, the term is understood to mean the measurement from the center of one wire to the center of the adjacent wire. Term should not be confused with clear openings or space.
Zeolite
Type of mineral typically used in the mining industry
Zinc
Type of metal typically used in the mining industry